Range 6 2007;18(2):362-8. The majority of those injured in cyclones can be treated on an outpatient basis and do not require sophisticated surgical or inpatient care 5,77. About 65-75 cyclones arise in the world every year. Females x 1992;16:266–71. Male 80 lacerations/wounds (34%), 79 sprain/strain/fracture (34%), 37 motor-vehicle related injuries (16%), 38 other (16%). Katrina, 2005 The Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum (the Forum) commiserates with all those who were affected by the disastrous effects of Cyclone Idai in Mozambique, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, and Malawi. Analyses were performed using Stata Statistical Software, Version 11.0 9. Shelter beds should be created to check soil erosion and speed of winds. Taiwan is located in the western Pacific Ocean and experiences an average of three or four tropical cyclones per year. Post-cyclone Injury management 1975;57(5):274-5. NR 15,199 (20,057). 109 (29.5%) 1996;41(3):449-52. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of cyclones in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors for associated with these outcomes. 6.06 (1.95-18.72) 88% if hurricane diagnoses were injury related. Town census Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to as hurricanes (western Atlantic/eastern Pacific), typhoons (western Pacific), and cyclones (southern Pacific/Indian Ocean) 1. Norris F, Sherrieb K, and Galea S. Prevalence and consequences of disaster related illness and injury from hurricane Ike. NR Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 577 wounds (28%), 428 insect stings (21%) 279 sprains (12%), 241 contusions (12%), 177 fractures (8%), and 131 other injuries (6%), and 78 unknown (4%). NR 0.68 (0.32-1.44) Findings. 14% of visits were relief workers, 34% were residents, and 52% were unknown; relief workers were 5.8 (CI:5.0-6.8) times more like to be treated in nonhospital facilities than residents. Nonfatal injuries following Hurricane Katrina—New Orleans, Louisiana, 2005. Cases of major trauma decreased by 50% and minor trauma increased by 57% in the 5 day post-landfall period. 9* 56 Deaths associated with Hurricane Georges—Puerto Rico, September 1998. x 26 of 73 patients had lacerations and 11 had fractures. Marilyn & Opal, 1995 2004 & 2005 hurricanes Tropical cyclone, also called typhoon or hurricane, an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain.Drawing energy from the sea surface and maintaining its strength as long as it remains over warm water, a tropical cyclone generates winds that exceed 119 km (74 miles) per hour. 3 When reported, there was a median of 46 injuries per storm (mean=775, 5% trimmed mean=200, range 1-138,849) when the highest reported figure was used. 716 unintentional injuries including cuts, blunt trauma, burns and environmental exposures (36%), 464 falls (23%), 311 bites/stings (15%), 145 vehicle crash injuries (7%), 42 intentional injuries (2%), 27 other toxic exposure (1%), 14 CO poision (1%) and 299 unknown (15%). Hurricane Katrina, 2005 292 Increased incidence of inflicted traumatic injury in children after a natural disaster. 1984; 13(5):334-8. NR Over the years, a lot of earthquakes had happened all over the world and led to a devastating effect … 16 NR MMWR, 199219 Epidemiology 2009; 20(6):892-5. Lacerations, puncture wounds, chain saw injuries, burns, gasoline aspiration, gastrointestinal complaints, stings, and spouse abuse were found to increase following the storm. 410-502-2628. Hurricane Ike, 2008 0 The destruction from a tropical cyclone, such as a hurricane or tropical storm, depends mainly on its intensity, its size, and its location. CDC Surveillence data 2005;71(3):194-7. 2006;21(2):55-8. Such was the case when Cyclone Gita struck in February this year. 7. 13 carbon monoxide exposure, 8 cardiovascular failure, 28 multiple causes iii. Not reported x 2-29,622,000. Male and female mortality rates in Florida were 18.8 and 7.3 per 1,000,000, respectively. x Marilyn & Opal, 1995 NR Facility, outpatient visits Examines mortality factors in deaths reported by medical examiners in southern Florida Examines of risk factors for mortality among island populations 6 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1989 38(42):718-20,725. 0.019 Describes public health impact on inland areas of North Carolina Table 5: Primary research articles describing cyclone related deaths by cause and timeframe (N=17) 59% of injuries were tree related; most patients had severe and multiple injuries and one-third were admitted. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in a New Orleans workforce following Hurricane Katrina. NR 71 cut/stabbed (55%), 41 blunt trauma (32%) 13 falls (10%), 3 crushed (2%) and 1 drowning (<1%). 2007;37(4):482-501. There was a significant increase in the number of patients treated for blunt trauma, chain saw injuries, and lacerations, following the storm.Top of FormBottom of Form Assessment of the post-hurricane incidence of traumatic brain injury in children Injuries were minor; the most common injury types reported were cuts/scrapes/scratches, animal/insect bites, and blunt trauma/bruising. The low-lying village of Popua is particularly vulnerable to the wind and storm surges. 2,411 unintentional injuries including cuts, blunt trauma, burns and environmental exposures (53%), 992 falls (22%), 416 vehicle crash injuries (9%), 339 animal/insect bites (7%), 89 intentional injuries (2%), 34 toxic exposure/poisoning (<1%), and 298 unknown (7%). A total of 558 cyclone articles were retained for article review; 193 articles focusing on the impacts of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement were prioritized for abstraction. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. NR Source: The Tragedy of Cyclone Idai and its Effects – The Zimbabwean A man stands next to the wreckage a vehicles washed away on March 18, 2019 in Chimanimani, eastern Zimbabwe, after the area was hit by the cyclone Idai. Table 3. 128 Post-hurricane surveillance of patient-specific data on injury and morbidity in greater New Orleans The NHC database included information on all cyclones in the Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. Fig. Injuries accounted for 86% of non-fatal events. The Human Impact of Tropical Cyclones: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review, Review of injury frequency before and after the hurricane, Analysis of hurricane-related emergency room visits resulting in Mississippi, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, Examines of risk factors for mortality among island populations. Available at URL: http://www.emdat.be/Database/terms.html. There are three types of effects of natural disasters, the primary effect, secondary effects, and tertiary effects. At the same time, they are surrounded by high pressure. Share Your Essays.com is the home of thousands of essays published by experts like you! NR NR Mortality among females was higher than males for all age groups; for females, mortality increased with age. NR Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, 1989. Alexander D. Natural disasters. These comprise spiralling winds that are usually centred in areas that have low atmospheric pressures. Many people are left homeless, and without jobs to support themselves and family. Originally accessed May 24, 2007 with subsequent update on September 4, 2009. Injuries were minor; the most common injury types reported were cuts/scrapes/scratches, animal/insect bites, and blunt trauma/bruising. Population based post-disaster assessment. No deaths were attributed to the cyclone, however assessments indicated that over 2,000 houses were damaged or destroyed . Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Hurricanes and Hospital Emergency-Room Visits -- Mississippi, Rhode Island, Connecticut. Even though they have a short life on the Earth, they do have the tendency to wreak havoc as they move across a settlement… leaving it in a total mess. Hurricane Andrew-related injuries and illnesses, Louisiana, 1992. Age was associated with increased mortality risk in numerous studies where both children 20,21,22, and older adults 22,57,58,60, experienced disproportionate mortality. I say this because, while natural disasters might appear to “cost” a lot more money in developed countries, some might argue that tropical cyclones cause a heck of a lot more damage in developING countries. MMWR, 199629 The additional review then identified eleven articles through October 2012 that met the inclusion criteria for abstraction in the mortality and injury review. 73% (38/52) of the deceased were male. 2006;12(1)97-102. Injuries to the elbows/wrist/hand/finger (rate = 38.9; 95% CI = 28.3-52.2), face/trunk/shoulder/upper arm (rate = 31.8; 95% CI = 22.3-44.1), and leg/foot/toe (rate =151.2; 95% CI = 129.4-175.7). Reference Reference Facility, ER visits x Higher population densities in the Western Pacific and South East Asia where dense settlements in low lying areas are associated with increased risk of death in from storm surge 70,71. Even a high tide can flow in to the village flooding homes and latrines. Waring, 200237 Response Team and Louisiana coroners, 107 heart disease, 46 other illnesses, 185 unspecified Katrina related, Florida Medical Examiners Comm. Pie graph of American tropical cyclone casualties by cause from 1970–1999 The effects of tropical cyclones include heavy rain, strong wind, large storm surges near landfall, and tornadoes. Critical Care Medicine 2000;33(1)S29-S33:56-58. Injury data were reported in 28 of the 58 articles, 15 of which provided information on injury type (Table 7). x 86 trauma or injury, 45 non-accidental, 15 CO poisoning, 9 drowning, 7 burns/inhalation When examined by sex, an increased mortality risk among men was observed in the eight of the ten studies that reported deaths by sex; males accounted for 59.4% of US hurricane deaths reported (Table 6). Hurricanes. Smith SK, McCarty C. Demographic effects of natural disasters: a case study of Hurricane Andrew. From crisis to development: coping with disasters in Bangladesh. As compared to needs for food, water, shelter, and sanitation, injuries are not usually a major public health problem in the post-impact phase 78 This suggests and that mobile field hospitals and specialized surgical teams may be ineffective responses and that non-medical relief may be a more appropriate strategy for morbidity and mortality reduction in the aftermath of cyclones 5. 8 drowning, 2 Hit by falling tree limb Significantly more wound injuries to the lower extremities (rate = 13.7; 95% CI = 11.6-16) and upper limbs (rate = 6.5; 95% CI =5.1-8.2). NR Brewer RD, Morris PD, Cole TB. Male Waring, 200237 41.2 (6.7) Other principal limitations of the literature review are 1) that an in-depth quality analysis of all reviewed articles was not undertaken, and 2) the fact that only English language publications were included which likely contributed to incomplete coverage of studies published in other languages originating from low and middle income countries. 1: Overview of the systematic literature review process for cyclones, Table 1: Articles with primary data included in the cyclone systematic literature review relating to mortality, injury, and displacement (abstracted, n=58, NR= Not Reported) Florida and Louisiana Mortality is concentrated in Asia, economic losses follow a similar pattern; however, total economic losses are greatest in affluent countries with developed infrastructure 6. Virginia 2004-5 Florida hurricanes (8) To assess risk factors for cyclone-related mortality the following categories were used: none (0 deaths), low (1-9 deaths), medium (10-99 deaths) and high (≥100 deaths). McNabb, 199525 Chowdhury, 199322 16 The utility of geographic information systems (GIS) in rapid epidemiological assessments following weather-related disasters: methodological issues based on the Tropical Storm Allison Experience. Observational cohort, ER patients Hurricane Floyd, 1999 16 33% of ER visits (n=59,398) were injury related; soft tissue injuries accounted for 28% of ER visits (~16,631) and the majority of injuries. x 1980 Epidemiology of tropical cyclones: the dynamics of disaster, disease, and development. Isabel, 2003 Combs, 199626 Shen, 200962 0 Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to 2009 of cyclone events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Injury rates were highest among middle age adults (30-39 yrs) and were concentrated geographically in three parishes. Florida, 2004-05 Among direct deaths, drowning was the most common cause of death, accounting for 59% of direct deaths followed by trauma, which accounted for 39% of direct deaths. Medical examiner/corner reports of deaths associated with Hurricane Hugo—South Carolina. Texas 0.025 RRR (95%CI) 7 electrocutions Examines demographic and epidemiologic risk factors for hurricane outcomes South Med J. NR Ecological Reference The impact from cyclones extends over a wide area, with strong winds and heavy rains. Reported by NHC Male Hurricane Katrina, 2005 J La State Med Soc 2008;160(5):267-72. Outpatient medical record review Tropical Storm Allison, 2001 In the 30 year period between 1977 and 2009, approximately 466 million people were affected by cyclones; 20.1 million left homeless, 412,000 people died and 290,000 were injured, excluding an estimated 28,000 to 114,000 unrecorded injuries. NR 1996;33(2)265-75. Injury rate of 3.8%; risk of injury increased with damage and decreased with evacuation. Combs DL, Parish RG, McNabb SJ, et al. Storm mortality by select country and event characteristics (N = 1,080) Between Sept 12-Oct 11 (after active surveillance) there were 5,907 visits for injuries including 497 (8%) major and 5,410 (92%) minor injuries. Morbidity of Hurricane Elena. Mortality Timeframe They usually occur in tropical regions due to high temperature and humidity. Define “severe”. Facility, ER visits NR Assesses causes of and factors with associated with mortality p-value Hurricane Andrew, 1992 The impacts from cyclones are concentrated in coastal areas of South and East Asia, Madagascar, the east coast of North and Central America and the Caribbean. 89.40% The relative risk for injury was 6.86 (95 CI: 5.98–7.87) in the two week period after the storm as compared to the two weeks prior to the event. Florida Medical Examiner and Dept. Sullivent, 200653 The effects of Hurricane Mitch on a community in Northern Honduras. Longmire, 198815 NR Each effect differs on how it … 0 NR NR Injuries to the elbows/wrist/hand/finger (rate = 38.9; 95% CI = 28.3-52.2), face/trunk/shoulder/upper arm (rate = 31.8; 95% CI = 22.3-44.1), and leg/foot/toe (rate =151.2; 95% CI = 129.4-175.7). Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Eavey J, Ratard R. Post-Katrina mortality in the greater New Orleans area, Louisiana. Andrew, 1992 NR 83 (53.5%) Kim H, Baik Han S, Kim J et al. Residents had a higher proportion of falls and motor vehicle accidents and a lower proportion of unintentional injuries as compared to relief workers. Describes carbon monoxide incidents and risk factors, Describes effectiveness of post-hurricane surveillance activities in three counties of Mississippi, Post-hurricane surveillance of patient-specific data on injury and morbidity in greater New Orleans, Rapid assessment of clinical care needs, public health services, and housing assistance for San Antonio evacuees, Documents hurricane-related causes of injury using an active surveillance system, Describes the prevalence of acute signs and symptoms, chronic conditions, and risk factors those in shelters, Examine post-Katrina rates and predictors of PTSD symptoms in New Orleans residents, Needs assessment of the Katrina-displaced population arriving in Denver, Epidemiologic review for risk factors for mortality in Hurricane Katrina, Review of Hurricane Katrina deaths and risk factors in Louisiana, Comparison of pre- and post- Katrina mortality rates and causes, Mortality surveillance for eight Florida hurricanes occurring in 2004 and 2005, Mangrove ecosystems and mortality reduction in cyclones, Risk factors for injury during Typhoon Saomei, Injury and displacement among older adults following Hurricane Katrina, Child mortality following Hurricane Katrina, Injury and illness among Burmese patients presenting for care following Cyclone Nargis, Prevalence of disaster related illness and injury related to Hurricane Ike. Characterizes factors associated with cyclone-related mortality and identifies prevention strategies, Examines mortality following 1991 cyclone and effects of cyclone preparedness, Assesses injuries and illnesses among care seekers at health care facilities, Describes public health impact on inland areas of North Carolina, Characterizes hurricane related injury and morbidity in Louisiana, Describes hurricane related population-based mortality rates, Examines hurricane-related mortality risk, Examines damage, mortality, and displacement in Dade County, Florida, Injuries and health needs of affected communities in Virgin Islands, Florida, Louisiana and Georgia, Summarizes and characterizes hurricane-attributed deaths in Florida and US Virgin Islands, Examines demographics effects in Dade County Florida, Uses medical chart data to characterize hurricane related increases in injuries and morbidity, Describe deaths indirectly caused by the hurricane, Monitoring of illness, injury and death related to the hurricane and subsequent flooding, Assesses the impact of Hurricane Mitch on a small Honduran community, Spatial analysis of destruction caused by Hurricane 07B, Assesses health and medical needs of the affected population, Assessment of the post-hurricane incidence of traumatic brain injury in children, Assesses causes of and factors with associated with mortality, Assesses post-event injuries and injury prevention strategies, Documents facility-based surveillance efforts of post-hurricane effects, Examines demographic and epidemiologic risk factors for hurricane outcomes, Hurricane-related emergency department visits and storm impact on hospital admission rates, Utility of geographic information systems (GIS) in rapid epidemiological assessments, Examines demographics and health needs of evacuees in Houston area shelters. Hurricane Isabel, 2003 26 of 73 patients had lacerations and 11 had fractures. 37 Mortality among females was higher than males for all age groups; for females, mortality increased with age. The next order of high mortality events with 10,000-15,000 deaths included Hurricane Mitch (Honduras, 1998) and a cyclone in Bangladesh (1985) and there were 16 events with 1,000-9,999 deaths over the 30 years. Injury types included abrasion/cut/puncture and animal bites; no significant difference in injury was observed between individuals from flooded and non-flooded homes. 1678 sprains/strains (43%), 1026 other fractures (27%), 980 lacerations (25%), and 186 hip fractures (5%) Review of medicare claims (older adults) 466,098,192 41 Medical Examiner, Puerto Rico 36 drownings MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996 45(4):81-5. 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