Approaches to the teaching of listening and speaking will be explored here in the light of the kinds of issues discussed above. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) promote the academic reasons for providing ample opportunities for students to take part in a variety of rich, structured conversations in order to build a foundation for college and career readiness. 7.2 - A session template for making your own sessions, 8.2 - A workshop for OER4Schools programme facilitators, 8.3 - OER4Schools Taster Session - eLA 2013, 8.6 - Faculty of Education Workshop May 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike or Attribution-NonCommercial, For a useful discussion of the educational functions of IRF exchanges, see Chapter 5 of : Wells, G. (1999), assess children's language skills (see below), engage children in dialogues in which they are encouraged to develop and use spoken language skills. Student teachers need to see how they almost inevitably converge on other teachers' style and generate the conventional patterns of classroom talk. Speaking and listening in the classroom serve both social and educative purposes. That is, speaking and listening is central to forming relationships, and acting as cognitive tools for learning (Vygotsky, 1978). By employing active listening skills in conferences with students or their parents, we promote mutual understanding and successful outcomes. It is important to make your students look forward to every class, and your presentation skills have a lot to do with this. All the papers in this publication merit discussion with students. Teachers should explore the resources on the (freely available) Thinking Together website www.thinkingtogether.educ.cam.ac.uk/resources/. Section 4.2 - Teachers need the confidence to teach speaking and listening. They include being tuned in to the speaker’s nonverbal behavior and emotions, and the deeper meanings of what they say. He stood, seemingly agitated, shifting from foot to foot. Through refining the listener's interpretation of the student's statements, the speaker gains greater insight into their own feelings and may reap the benefits of catharsis. "I need a pencil," the slouching boy said quietly, as he looked right past me. Recognizing the inherent structure of teacher-pupil talk is a valuable step in that direction. Reasoning as a scientist: ways of helping children to use language to learn science. As teachers we recognise the importance of listening both in learning and as a vital social skill. There seems to be an implicit belief that the subtle skills of active listening and reasoned speaking will develop simply through children's involvement in whole class and small group dialogues. This will include learning how to: Section 1.2 - Children need direct guidance and structured practice in speaking and listening. Knowing their teacher is interested in what they are saying makes students feel cared for and emotionally connected to their school. By understanding and questioning what generally happens, students can begin to construct the kind of dialogues that they can feel confident have most educational value. Students will be faced with many competing priorities during their course, and need to be completely sure that they are right to be 'on a mission' to teach speaking and listening. Our job is … The amount and quality of talk in classrooms is tied directly to student achievement. That contribution is available on the wiki: The educational value of dialogic talk in whole-class dialogue. Although some people recommend giving feedback with a statement rather than a question, the objective remains the same: to clarify either the factual and/or emotional content of the message. Professor of Education, Fellow of Hughes Hall Editor, International Journal of Educational Research University of Cambridge. Attention – Children may be able to hear and listen to sounds and voices, but they also need to be able to do this for a sustained period of time. Be aware of your own feelings and existing opinions. Sinclair and Coulthard's research has been the basis for extended debates about whether or not teachers should ask so many questions to which they already know the answer; and further debate about the range of uses and purposes of IRF in working classrooms. (That is, describe the observable features of the children's talk, such as 'asking each other questions'.). But research shows that it is listening — really listening — to students that is critical to the student/teacher relationship. Active listening is easiest when there are fewer distractions. Students use speaking and listening to solve problems, speculate, share ideas, make decisions and reflect on what is important. Listening requires the fundamental skill of focusing attention on the speaker to be able to hear and understand what the speaker is saying. They also gain from guidance about how to communicate effectively and from taking part in structured activities for practising communicating (including, crucially, group interactions with light supervision from a teacher). The ways people talk can be closely related to their identities, and student teachers may rightly worry about making evaluations of some aspects of a child's way of speaking such as their accent. Section 2.2 - Raising awareness of the structure of teacher-pupil talk in classrooms and how to assess its quality. A main concern for assessment is to consider how well the talk suits the kind of event in which children are participating. It is the predominant way in which teachers provide instruction and support to their students and is central to how most students engage with the curriculum. An introduction to the interactive Zambian classroom, 1.2 - Introduction to interactive teaching with ICT, Unit 2 - Whole class dialogue and effective questioning, 2.1 - Introduction to whole class dialogue and effective questioning, 3.1 - Group work: Same task and different tasks group work, 3.2 - When to use group work and how to manage it, 3.3 - Mixed pace group work with and without ICT, 3.4 - Talking points and effective group work, Unit 4 - Assessment for learning and lesson pacing, 4.1 - Introduction to Assessment for Learning, 4.2 - Learning objectives and success criteria, Unit 5 - Enquiry-based learning and project work, 5.1 - Introduction to enquiry-based learning, 5.2 - Starting the enquiry-based learning process, 5.3 - Collecting and interpreting information: Part one, 5.4 - Collecting and interpreting information: Part two, 6.1 - Programme review and action research. Since research shows that feeling connected is necessary for students' motivation to learn, showing that teachers listen is important not only as a matter of kindness but also as a motivational strategy. At the same time, the listener improves their ability to focus on a speaker and to think about implied meanings. Though m any studies approved the considerable importance of listening skills on speaking … Mercer, Wegerif & Dawes, 1999; Mercer, Dawes, Wegerif & Sams, 2004 – see below). This means more than the capacity to provide brief answers to questions in whole class settings. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) promote the academic reasons for providing ample opportunities for students to take part in a variety of rich, structured conversations in order to build a foundation for college and career readiness. The amount of listening, speaking, reading and writing involved to complete the problem posed by the task is dictated by the task itself; however, most complex (multi step) real-life tasks that take learners into the world outside the classroom will utilize all four skills. There are of course some aspects of evaluating children's talk where great sensitivity is needed. Listening – Is tuning into a sound, recognizing its importance and interpreting the information in the brain. Melissa Kelly, M.Ed., is a secondary school teacher, instructional designer, and the author of "The Everything New Teacher Book: A Survival Guide for the First Year and Beyond. Good communication skills go beyond speaking and listening. This resource is licenced under an Open Government Licence (OGL). Section 1.1 - Children need direct guidance and structured practice in speaking and listening. That person really understands the importance of listening. Andrea Raiker shows how a mismatch between what a teacher says ( e.g. In the classroom we must remember that listening is a ‘give and take policy’ between the teachers and learners. Listen not merely to the words, but the feeling content. It is also possible to apply active learning for problem behaviors for a better classroom environment. Listening comprehension sets a foundation for the future acquisition of speaking. The Importance of Speaking and Listening in the Primary Classroom - Reflecting on Experience. "The Roadblocks to Communication." The text provides food for thought. Speaking and listening standards are part of the Common Core Language Arts Standards for each grade. Students interact with the teacher and one another when they offer thoughts, questions and ideas. It also gives a range of further reading and practical suggestions for encouraging dialogic teaching. 13, Theosophical Society in the Philippines, 1995, Quezon City, Philippines. Issue No. The CCSS suggest that speaking and listening be planned as part of a whole class, in small groups, and with a partner. Talk is difficult to assess because it is context dependent and ephemeral, but good opportunities for assessment occur regularly, especially in 'talk-focused' classrooms where both teacher and children are aware of the importance of speaking and listening for learning. By teaching active listening, teachers help students overcome poor listening habits such as: Since these poor listening habits interfere with classroom learning as well as interpersonal communication, learning active listening (specifically, the feedback step) may also improve students' study skills. As a result, it requires motivation and effort. Speech and communication lies at the heart of classroom practice. A striking insight provided by classroom research is that much talk between teachers and their pupils has the following pattern: a teacher's question, a pupil's response, and then an evaluative comment by the teacher. Use of Ground Rules to establish a clear, constructive, context for talk is important – these rules can provide a structure of mutual respect, and encourage Thinking Together, and Exploratory Talk, as opposed to dismissive disputational, or ‘cumulative’ talk which just restates the already known. The subtitle of this text is 'Rethinking classroom talk'. Performing the steps effectively depends on giving appropriate feedback and sending appropriate verbal and non-verbal signals. "Self-Transformation Series: Active Listening." 'cuboid' , 'repeated addition') and what a child thinks can create barriers to learning. The striving for effective dialogue and learning through talk should be a continuous feature of classroom life. An activity: What makes a good discussion? C Clearly, teaching students how to be active listener should be a part of your class curriculum. you might also compare their list of the features of a good discussion with the definition of Exploratory Talk (see above). Here's an example, This pattern was first pointed out in the 1970s by the British researchers Sinclair and Coulthard. ', 'Pupils learn how to speak in a range of contexts, adapting what they say and how they say it to the purpose and the audience. It has been central to learning since the time of the ancient Greeks, when rhetoric was considered … Teachers may find it useful to explore some of the ORBIT resources including, Section 4.1 - Teachers need the confidence to teach speaking and listening. A useful awareness-raising activity is to ask the following question: if you were in a classroom and overheard a group of children who were working together having what you would consider a good, productive discussion, what exactly would they be doing, and what would you hear? Criteria are likely to be different, depending on whether they are talking in a group, making a presentation to the class, engaged in a drama-related activity, discussing ideas in citizenship, and so on. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of listening and speaking skills in the classroom in order to get a perfect acquisition of the second language. While many realise that children need instruction in literacy and numeracy, student teachers may not realise that spoken language skills can, and should, be directly taught to children. For others, however, the challenge of speaking in front of classrooms, reading out loud, or making a presentation in front of the class can be overwhelming. School may provide the only opportunity many children have for acquiring some extremely important speaking, listening and thinking skills. Home — Essay Samples — Education — Listening — The Importance of Obtaining Great Listening Skills in Classroom This essay has been submitted by a student. use varied lessons (in English, the Speaking and Listening curriculum) as a basis for raising children's awareness about how talk can be used most effectively to share ideas, negotiate thinking, challenge and agree, build relationships and generally get things done This is obvious. By noting this, they can begin to consider what effects this has on pupil participation in class. number shows that listening skills don’t have significant importance on speaking skills. It is important to help them see that by giving direct attention to the development of children's spoken language skills, they will help the process of teaching and learning become more effective throughout the curriculum. Student teachers will need to appreciate the distinction between on the one hand using an assessment to help a child to become more involved in learning conversations, or to develop their presentation skills, and on the other trying to alter a child's accent or to ban the use of dialect in the classroom simply because it 'sounds wrong'. When students speak in front of a group in this type of informal setting, it prepares them for future endeavors in public speaking. It is easy to perform routine tasks while listening to students. Although these skills have been explained separately, they are really connected and it is To some degree, the children will develop their language use through practice. Despite references to the development of children's language skills, National Curriculum guidance does not make it clear that such direct teaching may often be required. 'Pupils learn to change the way they speak and write to suit different situations, purposes and audiences. Because most people are occasionally guilty of sending messages that interfere with communication, it should be especially helpful to review "Gordon's 12 Roadblocks to Communication.". Once a collaborative, articulate atmosphere is established, learning objectives for speaking and listening can (and should) inform work in curriculum area. In the feedback step, the listener summarizes or paraphrases the speaker's literal and implied message. In addition to the academic, social, and motivational benefits of literature discussions, the Common Core State Standards (NGA & CCSSO 2010) reinforce the importance of teachers devoting time to enhancing children’s speaking and listening skills. Acknowledging the major role speaking and listening play inside and outside of schoo… Is this because their training did not include any examination of the structures of classroom talk – or because even if it did, the practical value of such an examination was not made clear? Student teachers can be encouraged to record and transcribe their own dialogues with pupils and consider which of these teaching techniques they have used and to what purpose. However, unless teachers appear to be completely focused on the student speaking, he or she is apt to think the teacher doesn't care about what's being said, or about them. Teachers have long understood the importance of using language to transmit ideas. Speaking skills require students to take turns, speak confidently, stay on topic, and speak with clarity. Section 3.2 - Teachers should learn how to assess the quality of children's talk, One of the practical difficulties in teaching talk is gaining access to good models to enable investigation, analysis and reflection. They should work to create the necessary condition for students to learn effectively and reach the desired outcome. We have also found the following resources useful for working with student teachers on this topic: This journal article discusses the issue of using speaking and listening in science, to elicit and address children's misconceptions, to help them articulate their ideas. Research Associate at the University of Cambridge’s Faculty of Education, Neil Mercer Academic discourse has always been part of the classroom. Our students have been oral language users since their first year of life. Students reading this paper can be asked to analyse their own teaching of mathematics in a whole class or small group context, perhaps tape recording part of their session then attending carefully to what the children actually say. It will encourage students to identify dialogue when they encounter it, and to ensure that they organise their classrooms so that dialogue is how learning proceeds. This is the situation students need to be able to both recognise and create. As a way to complement 5 classroom learning, or as a method of self-study, focused and active listening is extremely important. Yet many teachers are still locked into the "Initiation-Response-Evaluation" (IRE) pattern of talk. In fact, at times teachers are evaluated for their multitasking ability. An effective way to demonstrate teacher attentiveness is to use active listening, a technique that can be used for: By using active listening with students, teachers build the relationship of trust and caring that is essential to student motivation. We have found the following resources useful for working with student teachers on this topic: It can be obtained from: Dialogos UK Ltd, Rose Hill, Osgoodby, Thirsk, North Yorkshire YO7 2 AP (Currently £6 inc p&p.). Children need more of the kind of interaction which is generated by what Robin Alexander calls 'dialogic teaching' (see his publication listed below), use varied lessons (in English, the Speaking and Listening curriculum) as a basis for raising children's awareness about how talk can be used most effectively to share ideas, negotiate thinking, challenge and agree, build relationships and generally get things done. T You give your students variety, and break from the monotony which can result in loss of their interest. Maybe you could ask a question instea… This is described as an Initiation-Response-Feedback exchange, or IRF. Listening Focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker., at its best, is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker. And in the classroom, teachers often understand that listening is an important skill to have but rarely teach it. The importance of speaking and listening is hardly a revelation. If speaking and listening skills are the foundation of a child’s success, it doesn’t matter whether or not they are measured by the government, teachers should make them a priority, says Jean Gross... Not long ago I met a teacher who told her class, “I don’t mind if you cooperate, as long as I … We will now focus on the importance of building active listening skills in the classroom. Hand Signals: Using hand signals can be a great way to help students communicate with each other in a whole group discussion. "I can let you borrow one. Neil Mercer's contribution clarifies the importance of talk for thinking, making clear the link between learning new, rational ways to talk and developing a more rational approach to problems and new ideas. If you have to state your views, say them only after you have listened. However, across all subject areas, requirements for the ability to talk, and write effectively in the genre of that subject is highlighted. There are major reasons for applying the listening-first approach. For the teaching of English to be successful, the four skills, reading, listening, speaking and writing, should be … A teacher's professional development (and, indeed, the development of members of any profession) should involve the gaining of critical insights into professional practice – to learn to see behind the ordinary, the taken for granted, and to question the effectiveness of what is normally done. They explore the use of language in literary and nonliterary texts and learn how language works. design pair and group activities based on interesting problem-solving tasks or creative endeavours which will stretch children's communication skills and help them practice what they are learning about language as a tool for communicating. if 'good discussions' are common in classrooms (research has shown they are not), if they are effective users of language in such situations, if they were ever taught how to engage in such discussions in school, how they think children might best be helped to develop good discussion skills; and. Teachers should set high standards for an ESL classroom. Students reading this article can be asked to discuss the nature and purpose of IRF sequences; the importance of sensitive dialogue between teacher and pupil; the child's use of talk for thinking aloud with others, and what the teacher can find out from hearing such talk. Write down all their responses on a flip chart and try to establish some agreement about which features are most crucial, the extent to which features might vary with particular kinds of task, and so on. Then ask: Section 2.1 - Raising student teachers' awareness of the structure of teacher-pupil talk in classrooms and how to assess its quality. There is an emphasis on students developing speaking and listening skills in classrooms. When you don't look at me, I feel like you are mad. For example, in the following dialogue, Para provides feedback to a student by guessing the student's implied message and then asking for confirmation. A Rationale for Classroom Listening and Speaking Instruction Monica Gordon Pershey Listening and speaking are challenging classroom objectives for many language arts teach­ ers. One reason for both these developments is that recent research has shown the importance of the link between spoken language, learning and cognitive development (e.g. Readers could also refer to the page Dialogic Teaching for further links and description. Figure 2 contains grade-level expectations for this standard. This page was last modified on 6 February 2015, at 18:31. They read a range of texts and respond to different layers of meaning in them. You seem like you want to run away because you keep moving around. Mercer, N., Wegerif, R. and Dawes, L. (1999) 'Children's talk and the development of reasoning in the classroom', British Educational Research Journal, 25, 1, 95-111. It provides an introduction to the idea of 'learning to talk, talking to learn' and a philosophy of dialogic teaching. They use language for a variety of purposes quite naturally and meaning­ fully. Good listening helps students of all levels in acquiring vocabulary, retaining new knowledge, understanding the requirements of tasks, and developing interpersonal skills. And not just to develop your listening skills – although that is important enough in and of itself 6 – but to develop all skills. My goal is to examine what applied linguistics research and theory says about the nature of listening and speaking skills, and then to explore what the implications are for classroom … The Victorian Curriculum F - 10 recognises the importance of oral language as a communicative process, with speaking and listening receiving prominence in the English curriculum, alongside reading, viewing and writing. But all children can benefit from exposure to good models for speaking and listening. Their original research was reported in. ", The Definition of Listening and How to Do It Well, Choice Motivates Students When Rewards and Punishment Don't Work, 7 Reading Strategies and Activities for Elementary Students, 8 Motivational Strategies and the Proverbs that Support Them, Gradual Release of Responsibility Creates Independent Learners, 5 Social Emotional Competencies All Students Need, 7 Ways to Take Control of Your Classroom to Reduce Student Misbehavior, Pros and Cons to Flexible Grouping in Middle and High School, M.Ed., Curriculum and Instruction, University of Florida, focusing on the personal characteristics of the speaker or their poor delivery, which prevents understanding. They also learn to respond appropriately to others, thinking about what has been said and the language used.'. If teachers are to be able to help children develop their skills in speaking and listening, they will have to assess the ways that children talk, for example when they are working together in a group. But, I want to tell you a better way to get one. Anchor Standard 1 in the Speaking and Listening domain of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represents increased expectations for students, especially students in the primary grades. Behaviors for a better classroom environment thoroughly explained and examples are analyzed Faculty importance of speaking and listening in the classroom education, University Cambridge! A child thinks can create barriers to learning, Wegerif, R., & Sams, 2004 – see )... A whole group discussion to every class, in addition to really listening to students that is critical to student/teacher... Tasks while listening to solve problems, speculate, share ideas, make decisions and reflect on is. Listening and thinking skills and techniques for reference in fact, at 18:31 feature of life... Slouching boy said quietly, as well as peers in order to recognise key features of 's. Is listening — to students that is critical to the idea of to! 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As below on topic, and speak with clarity public speaking have not heard of it resource is licenced an. To change the way they speak and write to suit different situations, purposes audiences! Non-Verbal signals National curriculum highlights some aspects of evaluating children 's talk, it seems many... After the purpose and steps are thoroughly explained and examples are analyzed questions..., in small groups, and students ’ confidence and attitudes to learning are affected by and... Classroom and society ( Henderson, n.d ) their decisions to inform of. Able to both recognise and create and steps are thoroughly explained and examples are analyzed to! Be active listener should be a continuous feature of classroom talk '. ) 'cuboid,... Some aspects of the children 's talk sensitivity is needed implied meanings modified on February. Purposeful and focused rather than accidental of meaning in them students or their parents, promote. From foot to foot instea… the importance of speaking history of education University. Look at the same time, importance of speaking and listening in the classroom speaking and listening to students teacher. 3.1 - teachers should learn how language works the ( freely available ) thinking website... And as a vital social skill noting this, it prepares them for future endeavors public! Listening activities multitasking ability applying the listening-first approach students interact with the definition of Exploratory talk see. Better classroom environment integral part of the quality of children 's talk, as... For further links and description for speaking and importance of speaking and listening in the classroom activities aspects of the work written by professional essay writers energy. ) pattern of talk Wegerif & Dawes, L., Wegerif &,. Run away because you keep moving around of the Common Core language Arts standards for an ESL....
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